Sampling is done in research to be able to produce accurate results. It is impractical and undesirable to study the whole population and that’s why sampling is done. If the sample is too small or excessively large, it may lead to incorrect findings.
A Sampling is a part of the total population. It can be an individual element or a group of elements selected from the population. Although it is a subset, it is representative of the population and suitable for research in terms of cost, convenience, and time. The sample group can be selected based on a probability or a Non probability approach. A sample usually consists of various units of the population. The size of the sample is represented by “n”.
Importance of Sampling
Sampling is done in research to be able to produce accurate results. It is impractical and undesirable to study the whole population and that’s why sampling is done. If the sample is too small or excessively large, it may lead to incorrect findings. Sampling techniques may be used to find representative samples to avoid bias.
- In practice, the sample size that is selected for a study can have a significant impact on the qualityof your results/findings, with sample sizes that are either too small or excessively large both potentially leading to incorrect findings. As a result, sample size calculations are sometimes performed to determine how large your sample size needs to be to avoid such problems.
- Sampling bias occurs when the units that are selected from the population for inclusion in your sample are not characteristic of(e., do not reflect) the population. This can lead to your sample being unrepresentative of the population you are interested in.
- We typically study a sample of that population rather than attempt to study the whole population. The purpose of sampling techniquesis to help you select units (e.g., Facebook users) to be included in your sample (e.g., of 500 Facebook users).
Advantages of sampling:
- Time saving: this method saves time not only in conducting the inquiry but also in processing, editing and analyzing the data.
- Reduction in cost of inquiry: as whole universe is not studied so it saves the administrative, training, transport cost etc.
- Reliable: by doing a careful analysis of the data sampling method gives reliable results.
- Greater scope: due to administrative, transportation, training and man power cost of the census method the sampling method has the greater scope.
- Infinite population: if the population is too large then the sampling method is the best way to find the solution.
- Man power: census method require huge administrative set up but the sampling method does not require too much man power and administrative set up.
Disadvantages of Sampling
Every coin has two sides. Sampling also have some demerits. Some of the disadvantages are:
- Since choice of sampling method is a judgmental task, there exist chances of biasness as per the mindset of the person who chooses it.
- Improper selection of sampling techniques may cause the whole process to defunct.Selection of proper size of samples is a difficult job.
- Sampling may exclude some data that might not be homogenous to the data that are taken. This affects the level of accuracy in the results.
- Sampling process only enables a researcher to make estimation about the actual situation instead of finding the real truth.
- This method fails if we want the information about the whole universe.
- Sometime sampling method take more time and man power than the census method.
- If the sampling method is not used properly than it may lead to wrong results.
- A good sampling result requires experienced and qualified personnel.